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The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the Center author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Center Overview

The Center for Energy-Smart Electronic Systems (ES2) provides a cross-disciplinary approach to optimizing energy use and cooling in electronic systems and data centers. ES2's mission is to develop systematic methodologies for operating dynamic, predictable, self-sensing, and self-regulating electronic systems that can be verified in real time.

Thousands of data centers across the United States provide the infrastructure to handle a wide spectrum of information and processing needs for the government, military, business, and industry. Their services are critical for entertainment, e-business, e-governance, finances, cloud computing, social media, health care, and fitness. Massive amounts of energy are required to power and cool these facilities. Worldwide, about half of the energy they consume is wasted due to inefficiencies in the system and operational practices.

ES2's researchers bring together expertise in computer science and mechanical and electrical engineering to provide a holistic approach to making electronic systems and data centers more energy efficient. ES2 student researchers work with faculty and industry partners to prepare for careers in this dynamically evolving sector, and help companies develop solutions that benefit their businesses and society.

ES2 envisions the creation and operation of energy-optimized data centers and electronic systems with:

  • Smart allocation and distribution of IT load and dynamic IT capacity provisioning.
  • Smart integration of controlled, on-demand cooling.
  • Smart elimination of energy waste and inefficiencies.
  • Smart use of stored energy in data centers.


  • Villanova University
  • Binghamton University
  • University of Texas, Arlington
View Center Website

Center Personnel

Bahgat Sammakia
ES2 Center Director
+1 607 777 6880

Andrea Palmeri
ES2 Managing Director
+1 607 777 3629

Kanad Ghose
ES2 Site Director - Binghamton University
+1 607 777 4608

Alfonso Ortega
ES2 Site Director - Villanova University
+1 610 519 7440

Dereje Agonafer
ES2 Site Director - University of Texas, Arlington
+1 817 272 7377

Research Focus

Thermal Management – Air Cooling

Various aspects of air-cooling are studied and modeled, including developing intelligent control systems that enable air cooling on demand and optimize energy usage, containment, active tiles, contamination issues, and evaporative and free air cooling.

Thermal Management – Liquid Cooling

ES2 research is at the forefront of investigating transferrable high-performance liquid cooling technologies for data center environments. ES2 projects address three sub-areas within this focus area: single and two-phase liquid cooling, (both direct and indirect), and immersion cooling.

Predictive Management of Data Centers – IT/Cooling

Research in this area has resulted in solutions to predict workload and manage deployed server capacities to avoid waste due to overprovisioning while providing very tight performance guarantees. The solutions continue to be refined as new cooling technologies and renewable energy sources are deployed.


ES2’s data center sustainability focus includes projects that address waste heat recovery, advancing battery storage technologies, power conversion and integration of renewable energy sources, and applying sustainability life cycle analysis to make better decisions on the design and operation of data centers. These projects will continue in Phase III with emphasis on integrating sustainable engineering principles into all of the projects by developing and applying design methods and performance metrics for data center systems that account for environmental sustainability including, for example, consumption of resources (power, water, etc.) and global warming potential.


Member Organizations

IUCRC affiliated member organizations are displayed as submitted by the Center. Non-federal organizations are not selected, approved, or otherwise endorsed by the National Science Foundation.
  • AMD
  • BAE Systems
  • Bloomberg
  • Cadence
  • CoolIT
  • ERG Aerospace
  • Fabric*Labs
  • Google
  • Honeywell
  • Intel
  • Mestek
  • META
  • Microsoft
  • Mikros
  • Seguente
  • Shell
  • Silent-Aire
  • Swiss Vault
  • Vertiv