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The opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed are those of the Center author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.

Center Overview

The Center for Energy-Smart Electronic Systems (ES2) provides a cross-disciplinary approach to optimizing energy use and cooling in electronic systems and data centers. ES2's mission is to develop systematic methodologies for operating dynamic, predictable, self-sensing, and self-regulating electronic systems that can be verified in real time.

Thousands of data centers across the United States provide the infrastructure to handle a wide spectrum of information and processing needs for the government, military, business, and industry. Their services are critical for entertainment, e-business, e-governance, finances, cloud computing, social media, health care, and fitness. Massive amounts of energy are required to power and cool these facilities. Worldwide, about half of the energy they consume is wasted due to inefficiencies in the system and operational practices.

ES2's researchers bring together expertise in computer science and mechanical and electrical engineering to provide a holistic approach to making electronic systems and data centers more energy efficient. ES2 student researchers work with faculty and industry partners to prepare for careers in this dynamically evolving sector, and help companies develop solutions that benefit their businesses and society.

ES2 envisions the creation and operation of energy-optimized data centers and electronic systems with:

  • Smart allocation and distribution of IT load and dynamic IT capacity provisioning.
  • Smart integration of controlled, on-demand cooling.
  • Smart elimination of energy waste and inefficiencies.
  • Smart use of stored energy in data centers.


  • Binghamton University
  • Villanova University
  • University of Texas, Arlington
View Center Website

Center Personnel

Kanad Ghose
ES2 Site Director - Binghamton University
(607) 777-4608

Hongbin Yu
Center Director
(480) 965-4455

Bahgat Sammakia
ES2 Center Director
(607) 777-6880

Aaron Wemhoff
ES2 Site Director - Villanova University
(610) 519-8045

Alfonso Ortega
ES2 Associate Director
(610) 519-7440

Andrea Palmeri
ES2 Managing Director
(607) 777-3629

Dereje Agonafer
ES2 Site Director - University of Texas, Arlington
(817) 272-7377

Research Focus

Data center sustainability, availability, and system energy optimization

This research looks at the holistic provisioning of data center resources and fault tolerance through intelligent control and management systems, including incorporating artificial intelligence, system learning, and neural networks.

Dynamic IT capacity and load management

Research in this area has resulted in solutions to predict workload and manage deployed server capacities to avoid waste due to overprovisioning while providing very tight performance guarantees. The solutions continue to be refined, controlling the optimal amount of cooling corresponding to the servers that are running.

Air-cooling systems

Various aspects of air-cooling are studied and modeled, including airflow management, containment, active tiles, contamination issues, and evaporative cooling.

Control and optimization of cooling systems

ES2 uses sensed data (temperature, airflow, and pressure) in real time to train and calibrate empirical and physics-based intelligent models.

Warm water liquid cooling

This research looks at energy efficiency improvements through the use of compressorless cooling, control systems, and cooling system optimization.

Two-phase and immersion cooling

Research in this area includes advancing energy efficiency improvements through control and optimization of evaporative cooling systems.

Waste energy harvesting

This research looks at applying the waste heat from servers, in order to reduce equipment electrical loads or data center cooling loads.

Power distribution and energy storage

Research in this area looks at improving the efficiency of power delivery in data centers, as well as the use of control systems and high-efficiency power electronics, to enable the use of emerging battery technologies for first-level backup and dynamic load capping in data centers.

Embedded cooling

This research area is focused on establishing the limits of direct contact for air and liquid cooling within the IT equipment itself.